Coordinates: 63°44′58″N 68°31′18″W / 63.74944°N 68.52167°W / 63.74944; -68.52167[1]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Iqualuit, Nunavut)

ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ (Inuktitut syllabics)
From top left: Cityscape from Joamie Hill, Iqaluit waterfront, Aurora borealis at night, Iqaluit Airport, St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral
From top left: Cityscape from Joamie Hill, Iqaluit waterfront, Aurora borealis at night, Iqaluit Airport, St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral
Flag of Iqaluit
Official seal of Iqaluit
Iqaluit is located in Nunavut
Location of Iqaluit
Iqaluit is located in Canada
Iqaluit (Canada)
Coordinates: 63°44′58″N 68°31′18″W / 63.74944°N 68.52167°W / 63.74944; -68.52167[1]
Electoral districtsIqaluit-Manirajak
Village status1974
Town status1980
City status19 April 2001
Founded byNakasuk
 • TypeIqaluit City Council
 • MayorSolomon Awa
 • MLAsP.J. Akeeagok
Janet Brewster
George Hickes
Adam Lightstone
 • MPLori Idlout
 • Total51.58 km2 (19.92 sq mi)
 • Population Centre10.48 km2 (4.05 sq mi)
Elevation30 m (110 ft)
 • Total7,429
 • Density144.0/km2 (373/sq mi)
 • Population Centre
 • Population Centre density667.0/km2 (1,728/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Canadian Postal code
X0A 0A1, X0A 0H0, X0A 1H0, X0A 2H0, X0A 3H0
Area code867
Telephone Exchanges222 (mobile), 975, 979
NTS Map25N10 Hill Island
GNBC CodeOATRP[1] Edit this at Wikidata

Iqaluit (/iˈkæluɪt/ ee-KAL-oo-it; Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ, [iqaluit], lit.'place of many fish';[8] French: []) is the capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. It is the territory's largest community and its only city. It was known as Frobisher Bay from 1942 to 1987, after the large bay on the coast on which the city is situated. The northernmost city in Canada, its traditional Inuktitut name was restored in 1987.

In 1999, Iqaluit was designated the capital of Nunavut after the division of the Northwest Territories into two separate territories. Before this event, Iqaluit was a small city and not well known outside the Canadian Arctic or Canada, with population and economic growth highly limited. This is due to the city's isolation and heavy dependence on expensive imported supplies, as the city, like the rest of Nunavut, has no road or rail, and only has ship connections for part of the year to the rest of Canada. The city has a polar climate, influenced by the cold deep waters of the Labrador Current just off Baffin Island—this makes the city of Iqaluit cold, although it is well south of the Arctic Circle.

As of the 2021 Canadian census, the population was 7,429[5] (population centre: 6,991[6]), a decrease of 4.0 percent from the 2016 census. Iqaluit has the lowest population of any capital city in Canada. Inhabitants of Iqaluit are called Iqalummiut (singular: Iqalummiuq).


Iqaluit has been a traditional fishing location used by Inuit and their predecessors, the Paleo-Eskimo (Dorset culture) and Thule, for thousands of years.[9][10] The name, Iqaluit, comes from Inuktitut Iqaluit (ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ), which means place of many fish.[8]

World War II resulted in an influx of non-Inuit to the area in 1942, when the United States built Frobisher Bay Air Base there, on a long-term lease from the Government of Canada, in order to provide a stop-over and refuelling site for the short-range aircraft being ferried to Europe to support the war effort. Iqaluit's first permanent resident was Nakasuk, an Inuk guide who helped United States Army Air Forces planners to choose a site with a large flat area suitable for a landing strip. The wartime airstrip was known as Crystal Two, was part of the Crimson Route and operates today as Iqaluit Airport.

It had long been used as a campsite and fishing spot by the Inuit, who called it Iqaluit – "place of many fish" in Inuktitut. The US and Canadian authorities named it Frobisher Bay, after the name of the body of water it borders.

The Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to Apex in 1949 (pictured in 2005) to take advantage of the nearby airfield.

In 1949, after the war, the Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to the neighbouring valley of Niaqunngut, officially called Apex, in order to use the airfield. In the mid-1950s, the population of Frobisher Bay increased rapidly during the construction of the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW line), a system of defensive radar stations—see North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).

Hundreds of mostly non-Inuit construction workers, military personnel, and administrative staff moved into the community, and several hundred Inuit followed, to take advantage of the access to jobs and medical care provided by the base operations. By 1957, 489 of the town's 1,200 residents were reported to be Inuit. After 1959, the Canadian government established permanent services at Frobisher Bay, including full-time doctors, a school, and social services. The Inuit population grew rapidly in response, as the government encouraged Inuit to settle permanently in communities supported by government services.

Naval Radio Station (NRS) Frobisher Bay (HMCS Frobisher Bay), callsign CFI, was established in July 1954 as a result of the closure of NRS Chimo, Quebec. Station CFI was part of the Supplementary Radio network. Because of its remoteness and size, it was very expensive to operate. Renamed CFS Frobisher Bay in 1966, advancing technology eventually forced the closure of CFI later that year.[11]

The American military left Iqaluit in 1963, as their development of the intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) diminished the strategic value of the DEW line and Arctic airbases. Canada continued to operate an administrative and logistical centre for much of the eastern Arctic at Frobisher Bay. In 1964, the first local elections were held for a community council, and in 1979 for the first mayor. The founding of the Gordon Robertson Educational Centre, now Inuksuk High School, in the early 1970s at Iqaluit confirmed the government's commitment to the community as an administrative centre. At the time of its founding, this was the sole high school operating in what constituted more than one-seventh of Canadian territory.

On 1 January 1987, the name of the municipality was changed from "Frobisher Bay" to "Iqaluit" – aligning official usage with the name that the Inuit population had always used (Many documents were made that referred to Iqaluit as Frobisher Bay for several years after 1987). In the non-binding 1995 Nunavut capital plebiscite, held 11 December, the residents of what would become the new territory selected Iqaluit (over Rankin Inlet) to serve as the future capital. On 19 April 2001, it was designated a city.

Canada designated Iqaluit as the host city for the 2010 meeting of the Group of Seven finance ministers, held on 5–6 February.[12] The requirements for the international meeting strained the northern communications technology infrastructure and required supplemental investment.[13]


  • 1576 – Englishman Martin Frobisher sails into Frobisher Bay believing he has found the westward route to China. He held the first Anglican church service in North America here.
  • 1861 – Charles Francis Hall, an American, camps at the Sylvia Grinnell River and explores the waters of Koojesse Inlet,[14] which he names after his Inuit guide.
  • 1942 – The United States Army Air Forces selects this area as the site of a major air base to support war efforts in the United Kingdom and Europe.
  • 1949 – The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) moves its trading post from Ward Inlet to nearby Apex.
  • 1955 – Frobisher Bay becomes the centre for the United States/Canada DEW Line construction operations. Many Inuit continue to settle here for local services.
  • 1958 – Telephone exchange service established by Bell Canada.
  • 1963 – United States military move out, resulting in some population loss.
  • 1964 – First community council formed; the population of Frobisher Bay is 900.
  • 1970 – Frobisher Bay officially recognized as a settlement.
  • 1974 – Settlement of Frobisher Bay gains village status.
  • 1976 – Inuit present a proposal for a separate Nunavut Territory to the Federal government.
  • 1979 – The first mayor elected, Bryan Pearson.
  • 1980 – Frobisher Bay designated as a town.
  • 1982 – Government of Canada agrees in principle to the creation of Nunavut.
  • 1987 – Frobisher Bay is renamed as Iqaluit, its original Inuktitut name meaning "place of (many) fish".
  • 1993 – The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is signed in Iqaluit.
  • 1995 – Nunavut residents select Iqaluit as the capital of the new territory[15]
  • 1 April 1999 – The Territory of Nunavut is established.
  • 19 April 2001 – Iqaluit is chartered as a city.
  • 2002 – Iqaluit, along with Nuuk, Greenland, co-host the first jointly hosted Arctic Winter Games; the Arctic Winter Games Arena was constructed in Iqaluit for the event.
  • 5 February 2010 – Canada designates Iqaluit to host the finance meeting as part of the 2010 Group of Seven summit.[16]
  • 29 July 2022 – Pope Francis visits Iqaluit to meet with a group of former residential school alumni on his penitential apostolic visit to Canada. He is the first Pope to visit Nunavut.[17]


Iqaluit is situated on the Everett Mountains

Iqaluit is the northernmost city in Canada, at 63 degrees north of the Equator. Iqaluit is located in the Everett Mountains, which rise from Koojesse Inlet,[14] an inlet of Frobisher Bay, on the southeast part of Baffin Island. It is well to the east of Nunavut's mainland, and northeast of Hudson Bay.


Iqaluit has a tundra climate, featuring long, cold winters, and brief summers that are too cool to permit the growth of large trees.

Iqaluit has a tundra climate (Köppen: ET) typical of the Arctic region, although it is well outside the Arctic Circle. The city features long, cold winters and brief, cool summers. Average monthly temperatures are below freezing for eight months of the year.[18] Iqaluit averages just over 400 mm (16 in) of precipitation annually, much wetter than many other localities in the Arctic Archipelago, with the summer being the wettest season. Temperatures of the winter months are comparable to other northern communities further west on the continent such as Yellowknife and to some extent even Fairbanks, Alaska, even though Iqaluit is a few degrees colder than the latter. Summer temperatures are, however, much colder due to its easterly maritime position affected by the waters of the cold Baffin Island Current. This means that the tree line is much further south in the eastern part of Canada, being as southbound, in spite of low elevation, as northern Labrador.[19]

Although it is north of the natural tree line, there are some short, south-facing imported black spruce (Picea mariana) specimens protected by snowdrifts in the winter,[20] in addition to a few shrubs, which are woody plants. These include the Arctic willow (Salix arctica). The Arctic willow may be up to around 7.6 m (25 ft) horizontally, but only 150 mm (6 in) tall.

The climate of Iqaluit is also colder than Gulf Stream locations on the same latitude. For example, the Norwegian city of Trondheim has an annual mean temperature that is 15.2 °C (27.4 °F) milder.

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −45.6 °C (−50.1 °F) on 10 February 1967.[18] The highest temperature ever recorded in Iqaluit was 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) on 21 July 2008.[21]

Climate data for Iqaluit (Iqaluit Airport)
WMO ID: 71909; coordinates 63°45′N 68°33′W / 63.750°N 68.550°W / 63.750; -68.550 (Iqaluit Airport); elevation: 33.5 m (110 ft); 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1946–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 3.3 5.2 4.3 6.8 13.3 21.7 27.8 27.6 18.8 8.6 4.8 3.4 27.8
Record high °C (°F) 3.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −22.0
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −29.9
Record low °C (°F) −45.0
Record low wind chill −65.4 −65.6 −62.1 −53.1 −36.0 −18.8 −7.2 −8.6 −18.6 −42.9 −56.8 −60.1 −65.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.4
Average snowfall cm (inches) 19.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.1 10.7 12.4 12.8 10.6 12.3 12.4 14.3 15.7 13.2 12.5 12.8 151.5
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 1.7 10.7 13.1 14.8 13.2 3.8 0.24 0.0 57.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 10.1 8.8 8.7 9.6 8.7 2.1 0.06 0.12 3.7 9.8 11.9 12.7 86.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 3pm) 68.1 67.6 68.9 74.6 77.3 74.6 72.9 73.5 75.2 78.7 78.4 74.3 73.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 32.4 94.0 172.2 216.5 180.5 200.2 236.8 156.8 87.9 51.4 35.6 12.6 1,476.8
Percent possible sunshine 18.5 39.0 47.4 48.2 31.9 32.5 39.3 31.0 22.4 16.8 17.7 8.9 29.5
Average ultraviolet index 0 0 1 2 4 4 4 3 2 1 0 0 2
Source 1: Environment and Climate Change Canada[21] (Bright Sunshine 1981–2010)[18]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[22]


Skyline of Downtown, the central business district of Iqaluit.


  • Downtown (central)
  • Happy Valley (north)
  • Lake Subdivision (north) – residential area
  • Lower Base (south)
  • Lower Iqaluit (southeast)
  • North 40 (northwest) – located on the north side of the airport
  • Plateau Subdivision (northwest) – residential area
  • Road To Nowhere (north)
  • Tundra Valley (west)
  • Tundra Ridge (west) – home to two of the city's schools and youth centre
  • West 40 (southwest) – commercial area
View of Apex, a suburban neighbourhood of Iqaluit.


Apex (Niaqunngut), officially and functionally part of the City of Iqaluit, is a small community about 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast (63°43′20″N 068°26′56″W / 63.72222°N 68.44889°W / 63.72222; -68.44889 (Apex)[23]) from Iqaluit's centre and is known in Inuktitut as Niaqunngut. It is located on a small peninsula separating Koojesse Inlet from Tarr Inlet. There is a women's shelter, a church, a primary school (Nanook Elementary School), a design shop and a bed and breakfast in the community. Apex was where most Inuit lived when Iqaluit was a military site and off-limits to anyone not working at the base.

Architecture and attractions[edit]

The Legislative Building of Nunavut is a distinctive building in Iqaluit.

Much of Iqaluit's architecture is functional—designed to minimize material costs, while retaining heat and withstanding the climate. Early architecture runs from the 1950s military barracks of the original DEW line installation, through the 1970s white hyper-modernist fibreglass block of the Nakasuk School and Municipal Offices and Arena, to the lines of the steel-reinforced concrete high-rise complex on the hill above it. A number of older Hudson's Bay Company and early 1950s buildings have been retained and restored in Apex (the former nursing station has been revived as the Rannva Bed and Breakfast, the HBC buildings as an art gallery). The newer buildings are more colourful and diverse, and closer to the norms of southern architecture.

The principal exception is the Nunavut Legislative Assembly Building, which is remarkable for its colourful interior, adorned with some of the very best in Inuit art. A new legislative building is in planning to be developed and built outside the city on the Apex Road.

Shaped like an igloo, St. Jude's Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic.

Another distinctive building was St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral, see of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic, which was a white building shaped like an igloo. The altar was built by the parishioners, under the guidance of Markoosie Peter, a traditional master carpenter. It was shaped like a traditional Inuit sled, and the cross composed of two crossed narwhal tusks. An incident of arson severely affected the Cathedral structure and interior on 5 November 2005,[24] and it was demolished on 1 June 2006. The cathedral is slowly being rebuilt (foundation 2008 superstructure 2010) and fund-raising continues locally and internationally. In December 2010, the exterior of a similarly shaped replacement cathedral was completed, and interior work was planned for 2011 with a potential opening for Christmas 2011. The current building, informally referred to as the Igloo Cathedral, was opened on 3 June 2012. The unique building, in the shape of an igloo, has traditionally been a landmark and tourist attraction in Iqaluit, besides its important spiritual role for Iqalummiut (people of Iqaluit).

On a ridge overlooking the city is the distinctive blue and white Inuksuk High School. The school is made up of four square sections joined that give a cloverleaf shape when viewed from the air.

The city is also the location of the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum, which houses a large collection of Inuit and Arctic objects. The museum is housed in a restored and extended Hudson's Bay Company building, clad in the HBC signature red and white, transported to Iqaluit from its original site on the Apex Beach.

Sylvia Grinnell River in Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. The territorial park is located just outside the city limits.

Just west of Iqaluit is the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. This park is dominated by the valley of the Sylvia Grinnell River. A small visitor's centre with viewing platform is located on top of a hill overlooking scenic waterfalls, tidal flats and traditional fishing sites.

Nearby on an island near Peterhead Inlet, is the Qaummaarviit Territorial Park. It is a site with a long Inuit history and numerous artifacts have been recovered, including the remains of 11 semi-buried sod houses.

A little farther, across Frobisher Bay, are the Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve and the Soper River, a Canadian Heritage River, forming a park corridor linking Iqaluit along traditional overland travel routes with Kimmirut (formerly Lake Harbour). Frobisher Bay extends for almost 110 km (70 mi) to the east, with moderate hills, glaciers and traditional and summer camp sites, opening into the Davis Strait, which divides Nunavut from Greenland.

Iqaluit, like many Nunavut communities, has a volunteer-run annual spring festival. Called Toonik Tyme it involves a combination of traditional Inuit activities combined with more modern events, while the Alianait Music and Arts Festival is held for a week each 21 June.[25] The festival has attracted Canadian and international artists such as Joshua Haulli,[26] Quantum Tangle,[27] Washboard Hank[28] and Namgar.[29]


Federal census population history of Iqaluit
Source: Statistics Canada

In the 2021 Canadian census conducted by Statistics Canada, Iqaluit had a population of 7,429 living in 2,708 of its 3,297 total private dwellings, a change of -4% from its 2016 population of 7,740. With a land area of 51.58 km2 (19.92 sq mi), it had a population density of 144.0/km2 (373.0/sq mi) in 2021.[5]

The median value of these dwellings is $376,639, quite a bit higher than the national median at $280,552. The average household has about 2.8 people living in it, and the average family has 1.4 children living at home with them. The median (after-tax) household income in Iqaluit is quite high, $98,921, almost double the national rate at $54,089. The median income for an individual in the city, is also high, $60,688. 5.9 per cent of people (over 15 years old) are either divorced or separated, which is quite a bit lower than the national rate at 8.6 per cent. Also, 53.3 per cent of the population is either married or living with a common law partner.

Iqaluit has quite a young population, the median age of the population is more than 10 years younger than the national rate, 30.1 years old compared to 40.6 years old.

For those over the age of 25:

  • 75.7% are high school educated (15.9% as their highest level of education)
  • 59.8% are post-secondary school educated
  • 24.3% have no certificate, diploma or degree

The 2021 census reported that immigrants (individuals born outside Canada) comprise 750 persons or 10.3% of the total population of Iqaluit. Of the total immigrant population, the top countries of origin were Philippines (195 persons or 26.0%), Cameroon (50 persons or 6.7%), United Kingdom (40 persons or 5.3%), Nigeria (40 persons or 5.3%), Zimbabwe (40 persons or 5.3%), United States of America (35 persons or 4.7%), India (25 persons or 3.3%), Pakistan (20 persons or 2.7%), China (20 persons or 2.7%), Jamaica (20 persons or 2.7%), and Ethiopia (20 persons or 2.7%).[39]


As of 2016, Iqaluit has the most Inuit in both numbers (3,900) and per centages (59.1 per cent), of all Canadian cities with populations greater than 5,000.[40][41]

Panethnic groups in the City of Iqaluit (2001–2021)
Panethnic group 2021[39] 2016[42] 2011[43] 2006[44] 2001[45]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Indigenous 4,055 55.47% 4,505 59.35% 4,040 61.21% 3,650 59.98% 3,065 59%
European[a] 2,350 32.15% 2,500 32.94% 2,265 34.32% 2,235 36.73% 2,030 39.08%
African 395 5.4% 225 2.96% 70 1.06% 45 0.74% 25 0.48%
Southeast Asian[b] 235 3.21% 165 2.17% 70 1.06% 35 0.58% 15 0.29%
South Asian 100 1.37% 65 0.86% 55 0.83% 30 0.49% 15 0.29%
East Asian[c] 55 0.75% 60 0.79% 60 0.91% 65 1.07% 25 0.48%
Latin American 40 0.55% 25 0.33% 15 0.23% 10 0.16% 10 0.19%
Middle Eastern[d] 35 0.48% 30 0.4% 10 0.15% 10 0.16% 10 0.19%
Other[e] 40 0.55% 10 0.13% 10 0.15% 10 0.16% 0 0%
Total responses 7,310 98.4% 7,590 98.06% 6,600 98.52% 6,085 98.4% 5,195 99.22%
Total population 7,429 100% 7,740 100% 6,699 100% 6,184 100% 5,236 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses
A stop sign in Iqaluit. The sign features the two most-spoken languages in the city, English and Inuktitut.
Catholic Church


There is no "majority mother tongue" in Iqaluit, as 45.4 percent reported their mother tongue as being English, and 45.4 percent also reported their mother tongue as Inuktitut. English is spoken by 97.2 percent of Iqaluit residents, however, whereas only 53.1 percent can speak Inuktitut. French was the mother tongue of 4.8 percent of the population, which is the same figure of the population who can speak the language. As of 2012, "Pirurvik, Iqaluit's Inuktitut language training centre, has a new goal: to train instructors from Nunavut communities to teach Inuktitut in different ways and in their own dialects when they return home."[46]


According to the 2021 census, religious groups in Iqaluit included:[39]


Nakasuk School is one of six publicly funded schools in the city.
Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum
Joamie Ilinniarvik School

The Qikiqtani School Operations based in Pond Inlet operates five schools in the area. Nanook Elementary School, located in Apex, Nakasuk School and Joamie Ilinniarvik School offer kindergarten to grade 5. Aqsarniit Ilinniarvik School offers grades 6 to 8 and Inuksuk High School offers grades 9 to 12.[47]

The Commission scolaire francophone du Nunavut runs École des Trois-Soleils and offers kindergarten to grade 12.[48]

At the post-secondary level there are two, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunatta Campus) and Akitsiraq Law School.


Emergency services[edit]

Royal Canadian Mounted Police during a Canada Day parade in 1999. Policing is provided by the RCMP's V Division.
Iqaluit Hospital

Emergency services (fire and ambulance) are provided by city from a single station on Niaqunngusiariaq.[49]

The emergency services fleet consists of:

  • 1 engine
  • 1 ladder
  • 2 staff vehicles
  • 3 ambulances

Iqaluit Airport Emergency Services is responsible for fire services at the airport. Following a fire at the airport in 1998, the Government of Nunavut re-opened the fire station at the airport.[50] Their fleet consists of:

  • Waltek C-5500 ARFF
  • Oshkosh T3000 ARFF

Policing in Iqaluit, as with the rest of Nunavut, is contracted to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) V Division[51] and the city is home to the divisional headquarters.[52]

Medical services[edit]

Qikiqtani General Hospital is the primary care facility in the city. There is also a Family Practice Clinic providing primary care services by Nurse Practitioners. Two dental clinics exist in the city.

Sports facilities[edit]

Iqaluit features two arenas, the Arctic Winter Games Arena and Arnaitok, the Iqaluit Aquaplex, a curling rink, the Timmianut Pikiuqarvik disc golf course, the Frobisher Inn Fitness Centre, in the W.G. Brown Building/Astro Hill Complex,[53] a golf course, outdoor basketball courts, soccer nets, seasonal outdoor ice rinks, a shooting range, a skatepark, and more.[54]


Iqaluit is the smallest Canadian capital in terms of population, and the only capital that is not connected to other settlements by a highway. Located on an island remote from the Canadian highway system, Iqaluit is generally only accessible by aircraft and, subject to ice conditions, by boat.

Iqaluit Airport hosts a number of scheduled flights to Ottawa, Montreal, Rankin Inlet, Kuujjuaq, and smaller communities throughout Nunavut.

Iqaluit Airport is a modern facility with a runway long enough for most modern jet aircraft. A new, larger passenger terminal building north of the old terminal was completed in 2018.

Canadian North serves Iqaluit from Ottawa, Yellowknife, and several communities in Nunavut. Locally based airlines Air Nunavut, Canadian Helicopters, Nunasi Helicopters, and Unaalik Aviation provide air charters, and Air Nunavut and Keewatin Air provide MEDIVAC/air ambulance service. Air Canada Jazz provided daily service to Iqaluit from Ottawa in 2010 and 2011, but cancelled service due to rising fuel costs, which prevented the route from being profitable.[55][56]

Iqaluit shared its runway with the Royal Canadian Air Force until the Canadian Forces stopped using Iqaluit as a Canadian NORAD Region Forward Operating Location. The barracks and CF-188 hangars are maintained. The airport has been a centre for cold-weather testing of new aircraft, such as the Airbus A380 in February 2006.

Rumours that Iqaluit was an emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle are false.[citation needed]

In the middle of summer, a few ships—generally no larger than a Liberty-class vessel—transport bulk and heavy goods to the city. Cargo is currently off-loaded onto barges as the harbour is not deep enough; however, the city is currently constructing a deep-seaport that is expected to open in 2023.[57] The deep-seaport, which will cost approximately $85 million, will provide all-tide access to ships and will have space for one ship to dock and unload, with the ability to offload a second using a barge-and-ramp method.[58][59] Initial plans for the port included facilities for a vehicle ferry connection to Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, however these plans were dropped due to high cost.[60] Experienced locals also cross the Hudson Strait from the Canadian mainland when it freezes over, either on foot or by dog sled or snowmobile, a distance of over 100 km (62 mi).

Iqaluit has a local road system that does not extend far beyond the city limits. During the winter, remote areas near the city are only accessible by snowmobiles, dog sled, or foot.

Iqaluit has a local road system only stretching from the nearby community of Apex to the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park, 1 km (0.62 mi) west of town. Iqaluit has no public transportation, although there is citywide taxi service. Iqaluit Public Transit used to offer bus service in the city, but the service was cancelled due to low ridership. Motor cars are increasing in number, to the extent of causing occasional traffic jams known locally as "the rush minute". The cost of shipping automobiles and the wear-and-tear of the harsh Arctic climate combined with its notoriously rough roadways mean that snowmobiles remain the preferred form of personal transportation. All-terrain vehicles are also common in most of the Canadian Arctic. Snowmobiles are used to travel within the city and in the surrounding area. In winter, dog sleds are still used, but primarily for recreation. In winter, the nearby Qaummaarviit Territorial Park and the more remote Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve are only accessible by snowmobile, dog sled or foot. In the summer, both are accessible by boat. Most major roads within Iqaluit are paved with asphalt, but local and smaller roads are gravel. Roads do not have traffic signals, but use stop signs to control intersections.

Residents and businesses identify their locations mostly by building number, and occasionally by the name of a prominent structure. Residents know where in the city certain series of building numbers are located; numbers tend to be aggregated in blocks, so someone might say that they live in the 2600s. Around 2003, street names were developed, although there were delays in finalizing them and posting the signs. Street numbers have not been assigned, and building numbers continue to be used. Iqaluit is the only Canadian capital city not to have traffic signals,[61] although some have been installed on a temporary basis.[62]

Waste and water treatment[edit]

The city's infrastructure is stressed by growth and lack of means to upgrade. Waste from the city is disposed of into an open air dump on Akilliq Drive (West 40) located south of the city.[63]

Although the city has water treatment facilities, raw sewage from the city is often dumped untreated into nearby Frobisher Bay.[63]

As the dump has reached capacity, the city plans to open a second dump 9 km (5.6 mi) north of the city.[64] Iqaluit does not have a recycling program in place; all recyclable materials are sent into the waste stream.

In October 2021, residents of Iqaluit, experienced a water crisis when their tap water was found to be contaminated with fuel. The contamination was traced to a decades-old underground fuel tank that had leaked into the city's water supply. The crisis led to a state of emergency, with residents relying on bottled water and water from nearby rivers for drinking, cooking, and other daily needs. The situation highlighted the challenges of providing safe and reliable water services in remote and Arctic communities.


Offices for the Nunatsiaq News. Nunatsiaq News is one of two weekly newspapers that circulate in Iqaluit.
Harbour view
Harbour view


Landline services in Iqaluit (established in 1958 by Bell Canada) and throughout northern Canada (established by Northwestel in five western Nunavut communities, and by Bell Canada elsewhere in Nunavut), are provided since 1992 by Northwestel.[65]

Cell service is provided by Ice Wireless,[66] Bell Mobility,[67] and Qiniq.[68]

Internet service is available through Northwestel, Ice Wireless, Qiniq, Xplornet and Meshnet.[69] Meshnet Community WiFi is a free community WiFi and paid service available in most areas of the city. Free services include access to, and many other resources.


Broadcast studio for CFFB radio, and the regional network centre for Nunavut for CBC North.


Frequency Call sign Branding Format Owner Notes
AM 1230 & FM 91.1 CFFB CBC Radio One Talk radio, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Part of CBC North; broadcasts English and Inuktitut programming
FM 88.3 CBM-FM-3 CBC Music Assorted music, public radio Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Rebroadcaster of CBM-FM (Montreal)
FM 93.3 CIQA-FM Weatheradio Canada Weather radio Meteorological Service of Canada Rebroadcaster of VEV284 (Iqaluit Airport)
FM 99.9 CKIQ-FM Ice FM Classic rock Northern Lights Entertainment
FM 103.5 CKGC-FM Capital FM Oldies Northern Lights Entertainment
FM 107.3 CFRT-FM 107.3 CFRT Community radio Association des Francophones du Nunavut French language community radio


OTA channel Call sign Network Notes
10 (VHF) CH4161 Aboriginal Peoples Television Network Eastern Time Zone feed
12 (VHF) CH2260 Ici Radio-Canada Télé Community-owned rebroadcaster of CBFT-DT (Montreal)

Iqaluit was served by CFFB-TV channel 8, a CBC Television/CBC North repeater of CFYK-DT (Yellowknife) until 31 July 2012 when it was closed because of budget cuts at the CBC.[70][71]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  3. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  4. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.


  1. ^ a b "Iqaluit". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ "Municipal Election Results 2019–2020" (PDF). Elections Nunavut. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  3. ^ "2021 General Election" (PDF). Elections Nunavut. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 January 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  4. ^ "Iqaluit City Council". Archived from the original on 29 December 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), Nunavut". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  6. ^ a b c "Census Profile, 2016 Census Iqaluit [Population centre]". Statistics Canada. 2021. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  7. ^ Elevation at airport. Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  8. ^ a b "About Iqaluit: History & Milestones – City of Iqaluit". Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Iqaluit, Nunavut – A Guide for Newcomers". Archived from the original on 25 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  10. ^ Iqaluit Archived 25 December 2021 at the Wayback Machine at The Canadian Encyclopedia
  11. ^ "HMCS Frobisher Bay". 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  12. ^ "Iqaluit G7 talks serious business: Aglukkaq". 2 February 2010. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  13. ^ "G7 tests Nunavut data networks". 4 February 2010. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Koojesse Inlet". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  15. ^ "Iqaluit Wins the Capital Plebiscite". Nunatisaq News. 15 December 1995. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
  16. ^ "Iqaluit to host G7 finance meeting". CBC News. 18 November 2009. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  17. ^ "Pope Francis, in Iqaluit visit, asks forgiveness for residential schools". 29 July 2022. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  18. ^ a b c "Iqaluit A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment and Climate Change Canada. 31 October 2011. Climate ID: 2402590. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  19. ^ "The Treeline in Canada" (PDF). NWT Department of Education, Culture and Employment. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  20. ^ Edgar, Courtney (11 December 2018). "Christmas trees can grow in Iqaluit". Nunatsiaq News. Nortext Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Iqaluit (composite station threads)". Canadian Climate Normals 1991-2020 Data. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Archived from the original on 12 April 2024. Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  22. ^ "Iqaluit, Canada - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  23. ^ "Apex". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  24. ^ "Iqaluit officials confirm cathedral fire was deliberately set". CBC News. 10 November 2005.
  25. ^ "Alianait". Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Nunavut teen from Igloolik wins Alianait battle of the bands". 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Lovers reunite across borders at Nunavut's Alianait Arts Festival". Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Music and fun galore at Iqaluit's 2012 Alianait Arts Festival". 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  29. ^ "Alianait opens applications for 11th circumpolar music fest". 21 November 2014. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  30. ^ "1976 Census of Canada: Population – Geographic Distributions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. June 1977. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  31. ^ "1981 Census of Canada: Census subdivisions in decreasing population order" (PDF). Statistics Canada. May 1992. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  32. ^ "1986 Census: Population – Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 1987. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  33. ^ "91 Census: Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions – Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1992. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  34. ^ "1996 Census: A National Overview – Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1997. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  35. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 15 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  36. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 20 August 2021. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  37. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 25 July 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  38. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Nunavut)". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  39. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (26 October 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". Archived from the original on 11 November 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  40. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Iqaluit, City [Census subdivision], Nunavut and Baffin, Region [Census division], Nunavut". Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  41. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Iqaluit, City [Census subdivision], Nunavut and Baffin, Region [Census division], Nunavut". Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  42. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 October 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  43. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (27 November 2015). "NHS Profile". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  44. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (20 August 2019). "2006 Community Profiles". Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  45. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2 July 2019). "2001 Community Profiles". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  46. ^ Dawson, Samantha (17 January 2013). "A new way to nurture the Inuit language: train the instructors". NunatsiaqOnline. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  47. ^ Nunavut Schools Contact List Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "Iqaluit's French-language school spreads its wings". Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  49. ^ "City of Iqaluit Emergency Services Department". Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  50. ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada – Aviation Investigation Report A98Q0192". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  51. ^ "RCMP in Nunavut". Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  52. ^ "Nunavut divisional headquarters". 14 July 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  53. ^ "W.G. Brown Building/Astro Hill Complex". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  54. ^ "What We Have – Our Community Assets" (PDF). Sustainable Iqaluit. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  55. ^ "Air Canada expands its network north to Iqaluit". 28 March 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  56. ^ "Air Canada discontinues Iqaluit flights". 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  57. ^ "Deepsea port will be ready for summer sealift, minister says/". Nunatsiaq News. 2 March 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  58. ^ "Long road ahead for transportation needs". Nunavut News. 15 December 2019. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  59. ^ "Public gets first look at plans for Iqaluit's deep sea port". CBC News. 27 March 2017. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  60. ^ "High costs killed Iqaluit-Labrador vehicle ferry dream, Nunavut minister says". Nunatsiaq News. 30 May 2019. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  61. ^ Restricted Drivers Manual Archived 24 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine page 16
  62. ^ "Red light! Iqaluit's first traffic lights cause social media stir". Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  63. ^ a b "Iqaluit's infrastructure struggles to keep up with growth – North – CBC News". 12 November 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  64. ^ "Iqaluit to get new $35M dump, replacing current one dubbed 'environmental disaster'". CBC. 26 July 2018. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  65. ^ "Who we are". Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  66. ^ "Network Coverage". Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  67. ^ "Competitive cell service coming to all Nunavut communities by 2019". Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  68. ^ "Qiniq". Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  69. ^ "Take a second look at your Internet bill". 25 October 2018. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  70. ^ "Speaking notes for Hubert T. Lacroix regarding measures announced in the context of the Deficit Reduction Action Plan". Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  71. ^ "ARCHIVED – Revocation of licences for the rebroadcasting stations CBIT Sydney and CBKST Saskatoon and licence amendment to remove analog transmitters for 23 English- and French-language television stations". Government of Canada, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  72. ^ "Inuk filmmaker mourned" Archived 2 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. CBC News, 20 November 2009.
  73. ^ a b The road to Nunavut: the progress of the eastern Arctic Inuit since the Second World War by Ronald Quinn Duffy
  74. ^ "Fact Sheet" (in French). Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  75. ^ "Nunavut MLAs choose Tootoo as new Speaker". 31 May 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Baffin Regional Health Board (Nunavut), and Health Needs Assessment Project (Nunavut). Iqaluit Community Profile. Iqaluit, Nunavut?: Health Needs Assessment Project, Baffin Regional Health Board?, 1994.
  • Eno, Robert V. Crystal Two: The Origin of Iqaluit. Arctic. 2003.
  • Hodgson, D. A. Quaternary geology of western Meta Incognita Peninsula and Iqaluit area, Baffin Island, Nunavut. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada, 2005. ISBN 0-660-19405-8
  • Keen, Jared. Iqaluit Gateway to the Arctic. Calgary: Weigl Educational Publishers Limited, 2000. ISBN 1-896990-55-X
  • Kublu, Alexina, and Mélanie Gagnon. Inuit Recollections on the Military Presence in Iqaluit. Memory and history in Nunavut, v. 2. Iqaluit, N.W.T.: Nunavut Arctic College, 2002. ISBN 1-896204-54-6
  • Newbery, Nick. Iqaluit gateway to Baffin. Iqaluit, NT: Published for the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 4, Iqaluit by Nortext Pub. Co, 1995. ISBN 1-55036-452-9

External links[edit]